Solution Cluster 2.1.4
One Health for People and Planet
Collective action to enhance food systems sustainability by combating antimicrobial resistance and emerging zoonoses
The focus on narrow sectorial growth with often competing interests between sectors has shown its limits causing significant collateral damages, such as climate change, deforestation, biodiversity loss, massive food waste, and emerging diseases linked to our production models. Zoonoses and antimicrobial resistance (AMR) are urgent One Health challenges.
Increasing emerging zoonoses have alerted us to the dangers posed by our unsustainable way of producing food, interacting with wildlife species and our environment. The COVID-19 pandemic has illustrated the need to rethink how we produce and trade live animals and how our food production and food supply are vulnerable to disruptions. Disruptions in air, land and sea supply chains, and large outbreaks among workers in large food factories and meat processing plants, have shown the need to revisit the way we prioritise resilience, safety and sustainability of our food systems.
The availability of effective antimicrobials is a fundamental precondition for the functioning of our health systems (SDG 3) and food systems (SDG 2). Urgent action needs to be taken to ensure sustainable animal and plant production and the use of antimicrobials needs to be limited to what is strictly necessary to preserve antimicrobial effectiveness in the long run. If not, antimicrobial resistance (AMR) will undermine the achievement of all 17 SDGs.
About this Solution Cluster
The One Health solution cluster aims to promote sustainable food systems and healthy diets, and the ability to prevent and treat infectious diseases in humans, animals, and plants. Key objectives are to:
- Reduce the need and foster prudent and responsible use of antimicrobials, including by aiming to phase out the use of antimicrobials as growth promoters.
- Establish and improve One Health national monitoring and surveillance systems for emerging zoonotic disease, AMR and antimicrobial use (AMU).
- Increase national commitment, investments and budget allocation for the implementation of AMR National Action Plans (NAPs).
- Promote the shift to sustainable (e.g. organic) agriculture and food systems based on animal health and welfare to limit the negative impacts of intensive animal agriculture, including the need to use antimicrobials.
- Develop and enforce biosecurity in animal husbandry and food hygiene throughout the food chain from farm to fork.
- Prioritise a One Health approach as the driver for the design and development of food systems to protect public, animal, and environmental health.
- Accelerate the implementation of a One Health approach in developing multisectoral science- and evidence-based solutions for the prevention, detection and response to emerging zoonoses at the human-animal ecosystem interface and in the way we design and develop food production systems.
- Make best use, support and link up existing international and regional mechanisms for advancing the development of One Health solutions and the sharing of best practices, such as the regular One Health international conferences, the newly established One Health High level Expert Panel (OHHLEP), the PREZODE (PREventing Zoonotic Disease Emergence) initiative, as well as the many national One Health multisectoral setups.
Actions: Combating antimicrobial resistance through One Health related actions
- Enhance global governance for AMR
- Establish the full set of AMR global governance structures – including the Independent Panel on Evidence for Action Against AMR and the Partnership Platform for Action Against AMR – to strengthen the One Health approach, and to facilitate dialogue on joint action under the leadership of the Tripartite and UNEP. If relevant, this could include working towards an ambitious update of the current AMR Global Action Plan.
- Strengthen support to countries and NAPs
- Increase support to the Global AMR Multi-Partner Trust Fund (AMR MPTF) to fund the required global instruments, support the implementation of National Action Plans (NAPs) and multi-sectoral interventions. The AMR MPTF should also catalyse sustainable NAP financing through domestic resources and international financial institutions for low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) through the Tripartite and UNEP’s skill set and that of key resource partners.
- Use collective research, innovation and data for evidence building on existing efforts to synergize and maximise impact
- Prioritize and fund intervention and implementation research to mitigate AMR by developing context-specific and cost-effective solutions. Solutions should be created across the One Health spectrum to support countries, in particular LMICs, in implementing their NAPs at scale.
- Enhance capacities of national monitoring and surveillance systems of AMU and AMR to gain knowledge on the trends and impact of the risk of AMR transmission at all steps of the food chain, from farm to fork. Where feasible this should include genomic sequencing using the One Health approach. National monitoring and surveillance capacity building could be based on tools like the WHO Guidance on Integrated Surveillance of AMR in Foodborne bacteria,[re]http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/handle/10665/255747/9789241512411-eng.pdf?sequence=1[/ref] WHO GLASS, FAO ATLASS and FAO-PMP-AMR, OIE Global Database on Antimicrobials Intended for Use in Animals and OIE Terrestrial and Aquatic Animal Health Codes and Manuals,https://www.oie.int/en/what-we-do/global-initiatives/antimicrobial-resistance/ Codex Alimentarius and other successful regional/national monitoring/surveillance systems.
- Enhance legal frameworks, including through the Sustainable Food Systems Framework
- Improve regulation on AMU and its enforcement on all levels and enhance transparency on AMU through labelling along the food chain. Labelling of products and animal feed increases transparency and empowers human and animal health professionals, farmers, food handlers, consumers and food businesses to make informed decisions and foster prudent and responsible use throughout the food chain and aim at phasing out the use of antimicrobials as growth promoters.
- Broaden access to training and technical support
- Professional assistance to farmers to foster health-oriented systems should be boosted. Broadening access to training and technical support can improve animal health and welfare reducing the need for antimicrobials in animal production. This can be done through reviving traditional knowledge on animal health and welfare, better guidance on responsible practices that will help to phase out growth promotion for animals and ensure judicious antimicrobial pesticide use for plants, enhancing infection prevention and control measures, fostering access to clean water and improved biosecurity through infection prevention and control measures, and vaccinations, and ensuring safe disposal of sludge and manure.
Actions: Preventing the emergence of zoonoses through One Health related actions
- Strengthen awareness of zoonotic risks and provide reliable information and policy guidance.
- Develop international standards (i.e. Codex Alimentarius, IPPC and OIE standards) that truly integrate the entire food chain with public health, animal health and environmental health as their focus. These standards should cover biosecurity on farms, human-animal interface, hygiene, protection of and from wildlife, slaughtering, etc.
- Develop a better understanding of the drivers of high-risk practices for disease emergence from the continuous use of wildlife (live animals and products) for food and other uses.
- Design and implement regulatory frameworks which manage the risk of disease emergence through wildlife trade; particularly by targeting high risk practices, providing incentives and alternatives to high-risk practices, whilst considering livelihoods and local customs.
- Support application and enforcement of frameworks to manage the risk of disease emergence through wildlife trade.
- Monitor the effectiveness of wildlife trade regulatory frameworks.
- Avoid deforestation and scale up ecosystem restoration.
- Regulate and reduce/eliminate the trade of live wild mammal animals for food and suspend trade and sale of captured live wild mammal animals for food.
- Introduce and develop alternatives to wildlife hunting and poaching in hot spot areas for emergence of zoonoses accounting for the livelihood of local populations.
- Better understand the drivers for the continuous use of wildlife (live animals and products) for food and other uses to better design interventions to curb these practices. Increase investment in the construction and maintenance of traditional food markets both in urban and in rural environments, focusing on providing safe and healthy environment for sellers and the public.
- Increase traceability of food products – in particular fresh products – as a tool to limit the spread of contaminated foods
- Develop integrated surveillance of human known pathogens, emerging pathogens, and potentially dangerous pathogens in both food animal farming environments, wild animal farmed environment and targeted wildlife in hot spot areas.
- Develop the use of genomic sequencing tools for real time local surveillance for alert and response purposes.
- Facilitate the sharing of and analysis of whole genome sequencing data through an open global database.
- Ensure that animal production facilities enhance animal health and welfare through regulation and accountable and transparent industry practices.
- Foster international research collaborations, and support the integration and strengthening of human, animal, plant and environmental health networks in order to prevent zoonotic disease emergence.
Monitoring and evaluation
For some actions, and for the overall human/environmental impact on AMR, specific indicators will be developed following the Pre-Summit as part of the more comprehensive description of the actions that will be carried forward.