समाधान क्लस्टर 3.1.3

भूमि-मीठे पानी का गठजोड़

Multiple factors are degrading both land and water resources, ranging from climate change to overpopulation.  Land and water policies – often not linked – need to give way to nexus thinking and unified strategies, with integrated agricultural solutions that protect both upstream and downstream ecosystems. The Land-freshwater Nexus Cluster Coalition intends to propose a systematic, collaborative approach to solve the food systems crisis. This depends on a better management of land and water resources through developing incentives and initiatives that promote integrated land and water resources management in food systems to protect watersheds and conserve surface and groundwater resources. To achieve this, the coalition for action will integrate innovative and traditional land and water resources management solutions for mountain, highland and lowland ecosystems. Both existing and new solutions include improving water use efficiency, water harvesting, soil water management, watershed management, agroecology, payments for water services as well as institutional innovations. Such solutions are key to foster the resolution of conflicts, align efforts and minimise and manage tradeoffs in land-water resource management, ensure continued provision and regulation of land- and freshwater-related services in the face of climate change, and leverage synergies among conservation and development efforts for enhanced resilience in the agriculture and fisheries sectors, especially within the context of the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. To achieve maximum benefits, integrated water resource management (IWRM) and sustainable land management (SLM) must be transitioned to integrated natural resource management (INRM) that takes into account different geographies, climates, ecosystems, social and economic considerations and the motivations of relevant stakeholders, including local communities.

इस समाधान क्लस्टर के बारे में

Agriculture, a highly water-dependent sector, is simultaneously a major contributor to the global water crisis as well as vulnerable to increasing water risks faced by human communities brought on by growing competition and climate change. Worldwide, food production accounts for 70% of human water abstraction (i.e. 2,800 km3 /yr), diminishes and degrades water sources, is a major contributor to water pollution and is a foremost cause of aquatic biodiversity loss and ecosystem degradation. Not only is surface water impacted but also groundwater, which is notoriously difficult to govern despite accounting for 40% of total irrigated production, leading to rapidly falling water tables especially in Asia and Africa.

Mountains and highlands are the world’s “water towers” and contribute 60-80% of the freshwater critical to both upstream and downstream habitats, including arid and semiarid areas. Mountains, highlands, and lowlands are interconnected. As of 2013, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) reported that climate change had already caused the disappearance of 600 glaciers. Continued glacier volume loss and permafrost thawing is causing important reductions in river flow, creating an imbalance between current water supply and demand. Besides, the interaction of climate change and land use change in critical mountainous watersheds is altering water cycles through landcover changes, resulting in modified runoff and water discharge, desiccation, salinization, pesticide residue accumulation, etc., while abstraction of water and disruption by hydropower development is threatening downstream opportunities for agriculture and livelihoods.

Food production systems are responsible for approximately 80% of deforestation, 70% of terrestrial biodiversity loss and 50% of freshwater biodiversity loss.  They contribute up to 29% of all greenhouse gas emissions.  In Africa, 65% of land is already considered to be degraded, further compromising efforts to sustainably produce food.

विजन: A coalition of inclusive action to develop solutions that promote INRM practices in food systems that take into account the relationships among mountain, highland and lowland ecosystems as well as the protection of these ecosystems. The coalition aims to conserve surface and groundwater resources and accelerate the implementation of Agenda 2030 to reduce hunger (SDG 2), protect aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems and reverse water and land degradation (SDG 6&15), and reduce

Land and water issues are inextricably linked, therefore, governance (including policies) and management must ensure their integration. Integrated natural resource practices will be more successful because of efficiency and effectiveness.

At global level, efforts need to interlink land and water as a system. While the 2030 Agenda on Sustainable Development supports land (SDG 15) and water management (SDG 6), indicators are needed to make the interlinkages between the two more explicit. At regional and national levels, the strengthening of INRM policy guidelines across all levels should facilitate the identification and optimization of synergies, while reducing conflicts and trade-offs among key sectors and stakeholders.

This section highlights existing initiatives. It also lists current and potential partners for those initiatives and governments. The SDGs are an integral part of the initiatives listed.

  • The Mountain Partnership – the only United Nations alliance dedicated to protecting mountain ecosystems and peoples. It includes more than 430 members, among which 60 governments. Its Secretariat is hosted by FAO.
  • Regional mountain conventions and initiatives, such as the Alpine Convention, the Carpathian Convention and the Andean Initiative.
  • स्मार्ट और कुशल कृषि जल के लिए प्रौद्योगिकी और नवाचार, स्थायी मवेशी प्रबंधन के लिए संक्रमण, सटीक सिंचाई, पानी का पुन: उपयोग जैसे स्मार्ट ट्यूबिंग नेटवर्क के माध्यम से, बेहतर फसल पैटर्न, पूर्वानुमान और निगरानी पानी की अधिक निकासी को कम करने के लिए - विश्व किसान संगठन, टीएनसी / जल के लिए फ़ूड इंस्टिट्यूट/ब्यूरो ऑफ़ रिक्लेमेशन/यूएसडीए/वोलिया, WRI, WOCAT
  • जल कोष/लचीला वाटरशेड (दुनिया भर में ४०+ जल कोष + पीईएस जल योजनाएं) - कृषि में एनबीएस का अभिनव वित्त पोषण - टीएनसी, एबीआई, अन्य
  • Nature-based Solutions to safeguard water sources and river flows including riparian management, restorative interventions like conservation agriculture, agroforesty systements, water harvesting, management of reservoirs for multipurpose/multi-stakeholder use – IUCN, TNC, WWF, World Bank, FAO, IFPRI, IWMI/CGIAR, WRI, Universities, WOCAT, CONDESAN
  • भूजल पुनर्भरण को सुरक्षित करने सहित भूजल के सतत प्रबंधन के लिए जोखिमों और अवसरों को अपनाने के बारे में जागरूकता पैदा करने के लिए सामाजिक शिक्षण हस्तक्षेपों का उपयोग- पारिस्थितिक सुरक्षा के लिए फाउंडेशन; सीजीआईएआर; भारत सरकार; विश्व बैंक; जल पर अफ्रीकी मंत्री परिषद (एएमसीओओ) - अफ्रीकी संघ आयोग (एयूसी)
  • जल बफरिंग - भूजल भंडारण, नमी भंडारण और सतह भंडारण की योजना और (एकीकृत) प्रणाली - एफएओ पश्चिम अफ्रीका, डब्ल्यूओसीएटी जल संचयन
  • पर्वतीय खाद्य उत्पादन प्रणालियों में पारिस्थितिकी तंत्र सेवाओं के लिए पारंपरिक ज्ञान और कृषि जैव विविधता को एकीकृत करना - FAO, WOCAT
  • एकीकृत परिदृश्य सेवा - यानी भूमि के समन्वित विकास और प्रबंधन के लिए भागीदारी + जल प्रशासन, प्रबंधन विकल्पों का पोर्टफोलियो - डब्ल्यूबी, टीएनसी, आईडब्ल्यूएमआई, एफएओ, एनएआरएस (राष्ट्रीय संस्थान), आगरा, डब्ल्यूओसीएटी, कोंडेसन
  • पुनर्योजी खाद्य प्रणालियाँ - मृदा भौतिक और हाइड्रोलॉजिकल गुणों के स्थायी प्रबंधन के लिए NBS (पुनर्स्थापना भूमि नवाचार) - CGIAR, TNC, AGRA, किसान संघ, WB, NARS, FAO, क्षेत्रीय संगठन।
  • हेडवाटर्स, झीलों और जलभृतों का संरक्षण जिसमें जल निधि और बफर शामिल हो सकते हैं - IFRPI, IWMI
  • भारत, इथियोपिया और घाना में सतत विकास की दिशा में भूजल शिक्षा - IFPRI/IWMI, TNC
  • वैश्विक नीति स्तर पर पर्यावरणीय प्रवाह (ई-प्रवाह) का कार्यान्वयन - जल पारिस्थितिक तंत्र और छोटे पैमाने के किसानों के लाभ के लिए व्यापक कार्यान्वयन के लिए इन प्रथाओं को मुख्यधारा में लाने के लिए तंत्र - एफएओ, आईडब्ल्यूएमआई
  • एनबीएस खाद्य उत्पादन और मीठे पानी के पारिस्थितिक तंत्र के लिए जल आपूर्ति लचीलापन बनाने के लिए शुष्क और अर्ध-शुष्क क्षेत्रों और जलवायु परिवर्तन पर विशेष ध्यान केंद्रित करता है - टीएनसी/एफएओ/वैश्विक लचीलापन साझेदारी/ऑक्सफोर्ड
  • सूखा जोखिम पहचान, निगरानी और मानचित्रण में निवेश (अफ्रीका का आईजीएडी क्षेत्र);
  • बढ़ी हुई सार्वजनिक जानकारी और पारदर्शिता (वैश्विक) के माध्यम से सुरक्षा जाल कार्यक्रम (इथियोपिया का PSNP) सामाजिक जवाबदेही सुनिश्चित करना

Highly relevant initiatives listed by other clusters include:  policy reform and public support, transforming commodity supply chains, strengthening indigenous peoples’ rights, minimum environmental standards, restore riparian buffers. Key partners include: UN agencies, major development NGOs (TNC, IUCN, WRI), CGIAR, national institutes, private sector, universities, WB, IFAD, regional development banks, WOCAT

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